For existence, let $a$ be the largest integer, in the usual ordering, such that $a^2$ divides $n$. If $n=a^2q$, then $q$ must be square-free.
For uniqueness, call a positive integer bad if it has two different decompositions $a^2 c$ and $b^2 d$, where $c$ and $d$ are square-free, and $a$ and $b$ are positive. If there are bad positive integers, let $M$ be the smallest bad one.
If $a$ and $b$ are not relatively prime, we can produce a bad positive integer smaller than $M$. So $a$ and $b$ are relatively prime.
We show that $a^2$ and $b^2$ are relatively prime. There are various approaches. One I like is that there exist integers $x$ and $y$ such that $ax+by=1$. Cube both sides. We get
which says that $a^2$ and $b^2$ are relatively prime.
Since $a^2c=b^2d$ and $a^2$ and $b^2$ are relatively prime, we have $a^2\mid d$. This contradicts the fact that $d$ is square-free, unless $a=1$. Similarly, $b=1$, and therefore $M$ cannot be bad.