I am having trouble making sense of this. I know what independence of random variables means. Suppose $X$ and $Y$ are independent, standard normal (Gaussian) random variables. Then, it is supposed to be that $X^2 + Y^2$ and $\frac X Y$ are also independent random variables.
I just cannot intuitively make sense of this. Where does that fact that they are standard normal Gaussian come into play? Also, if we know that $\frac X Y \leq k$ for some fixed $k$, then it seems obvious that it should affect the probability distribution of $X^2 +Y^2$.