Bourbaki shows in a very natural way that every continuous group isomorphism of the additive reals to the positive multiplicative reals is determined by its value at $1$, and in fact, that every such isomorphism is of the form $f_a(x)=a^x$ for $a>0$ and $a\neq 1$. We get the standard real exponential (where $a=e$) when we notice that for any $f_a$, $(f_a)'=g(a)f_a$ where $g$ is a continuous group isomorphism from the positive multiplicative reals to the additive reals. By the intermediate value theorem, there exists some positive real $e$ such that $g(e)=1$ (by our earlier classification of continuous group homomorphisms, we notice that $g$ is in fact the natural log).
Notice that every deduction above follows from a natural question. We never need to guess anything to proceed.
Is there any natural way like the above to derive the complex exponential? The only way I've seen it derived is as follows:
Derive the real exponential by some method (inverse function to the natural log, which is the integral of $1/t$ on the interval $[1,x)$, Bourbaki's method, or some other derivation), then show that it is analytic with infinite radius of convergence (where it converges uniformly and absolutely), which means that it is equal to its Taylor series at 0, which means that we can, by a general result of complex analysis, extend it to an entire function on the complex plane.
This derivation doesn't seem natural to me in the same sense as Bourbaki's derivation of the real exponential, since it requires that we notice some analytic properties of the function, instead of relying on its unique algebraic and topological properties.
Does anyone know of a derivation similar to Bourbaki's for the complex exponential?